Fluența citirii orale – norme pentru limba română

Fluența citirii orale – norme pentru limba română

Romanian normative data for oral reading fluency

Carolina BODEA-HAȚEGAN, Dorina Anca TALAȘ, Raluca Nicoleta TRIFU

The aim of this study is to establish reading fluency norms for preparatory students, students in first grade and students in second grade. A total of 1056 students in the preparatory class, 1977 first grade students and 1763 second grade students both from the urban and rural areas of different counties of the country were evaluated at the end of the school year using a set of tasks selected from the PEAFC probe. The results offer an overview of the oral reading fluency at the end of the preparatory class, at the end of first grade and at the end of second grade, representative for the Romanian population. Both the reading frequency and the reading errors, the accuracy of reading were recorded. The published norms can be used both by teachers and by language language therapy specialists to identify students at risk to develop learning difficulties and to develop intervention plans according to the particularities of each case.

Keywords: coral reading fluency; norms; errors in reading, dyslexia, specific learning disabilities

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2018.4.2.02

Published on line: 31/10/2018

Bodea Hategan C., Talas D., Costea-Bărluțiu C., Trifu R.(2017). Reading Fluency: Normative Data for Romanian Speaking Population, Social Welfare Interdisciplinary Approach,7 (2). DOI: 10.21277/sw.v2i7.302

Bodea Haţegan, C., Talaş, D. (coord.) (2016). Fluenţa verbală. Direcţii teoretice şi aplicaţii psihopedagogice/Verbal Fluency. Theoretical Directions and Practical Approaches, Revised Edition, Gatineau Symphologic Publishing/Argonaut, Canada/Cluj-Napoca, p. 267, ISBN: 978-973-109-615-5/978-988192-05-5

Bodea Haţegan, C., Talaş, D. (coord.) (2014). Verbal fluency. Theoretical directions and psychopedagogical practice, Cluj University Press, Cluj-Napoca, p. 211, ISBN: 978-973-595-744-5

Hasbrouck, J. & Tindal, G. (2017). An update to compiled ORF norms (Technical Report No. 1702). Eugene, OR, Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon. http://www.brtprojects.org/

Hasbrouck, J., & Tindal, G. A. (2006). Oral reading fluency norms: A valuable assessment tool for reading teachers. The Reading Teacher. 59(7),636–644.

Hasbrouck, J. E. & Tindal, G. (Spring, 1992). Curriculum-based oral reading fluency norms for students in grades 2-5. Teaching Exceptional Children, 24(3), 41-44.

Proces complex de evaluare în contextul intervenției timpurii

Proces complex de evaluare în contextul intervenției timpurii

Complex evaluation process in the context of early intervention


This article focuses on the importance of early intervention as far as language development.
This paper proposes an approach which focuses on the importance of the early assessment of toddlers’ language skills development in order to identify possible delays or disorders.
High quality early assessment and intervention services can change a child’s developmental trajectory and improve outcomes for children, families, and communities

Keywords: speech and language development, early intervention, speech delay.

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2018.4.2.03

Published on line: 31/10/2018

Bodea Hațegan, C. (2015). Tulburări de limbaj și comunicare în Roșan, A. (2015). Psihopedagogia Specială.Modele de evluare și intervenție, Cluj-Napoca: Polirom.

Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists (CASLPA,2012).

Early Identification of Speech & Language Disorders, Ottawa, USA. Accesat în data de 15.09.2018 online la adresa

Roșan, A. (2015). Psihopedagogie special. Modele de evaluare și intervenție, Cluj-Napoca, Editura Polirom

Shonkoff, J.P, Phillips, D.A. (2000). From Neurons to Neighborhoods. The Science of Early Chilhood Development, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Accesat în data de 15.06.2018 online la adresa: https://www.nap.edu/read/9824/chapter/1#ii

The Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University .(2008). Five numbers to
remember about early childhood development. Accesat în data de 25.08.2018 online la adresa

The National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center .(2011). The importance of Early Intervention for infants and toddlers with Disabilities and their Families. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Accesat în data de 10.09.2018 online la adresa: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED522123.pdf

Intervenții psihopedagogice în antrenarea limbajului verbal la elevii cu dizabilități auditive

Intervenții psihopedagogice în antrenarea limbajului verbal la elevii cu dizabilități auditive

Psycho-pedagogical interventions for verbal language training in students with hearing disabilities

Cristina Anca POP

The purpose of this research was to devellop lexico-semantic skills of preschool children with hearing disability by creating an intervention program based on stimulating and training verbal language.
This article presents a case study and the results obtained by applying following tests: the PEAMLR, Crichton Scale, Rey Auditory- Verbal learning test and Webster Scale

Keywords: lexical- semantic skills, hearing disability, Crichton Scale, PEAMLR, Rey Auditory- Verbal learning test, Webster Scale

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2018.4.2.04

Published on line: 31/10/2018

Anca, M. (2003). Metode și tehnici de evaluare a copiilor cu CES, Cluj-Napoca: Presa Universitară Clujeană.

Bodea Hațegan, C. (2015). Dizabilitatea auditivă în Roșan, A. (coord.)(2015). Psihopedagogia specială. Modele de evaluare și intervenție, Editura Polirom: Iași.

Bodea Hațegan, C. (2014). Probă de evaluare a abilităților morfologice în limba română. Aplicații psiholingvistice, E-book, Cluj-Napoca: Editura Argonaut.

Gherguț, A. (2005). Sinteze de psihopedagogie specială, Iași: Editura Polirom.

Gherguț, A. (2013). Sinteze de psihopedagogie specială, Iași: Editura Polirom.

Popa, M. (2018). Educația auditivă. http://ai.pub.ro/auz/ed_auz – accesat la data de 15.04.2018.

Pufan, C. (1982). Probleme de Surdo-Psihologie, (vol. 1), București: Editura Didactică și Pedagogică.

Pufan, C. (1982). Probleme de Surdo-Psihologie, (vol. 2), București: Editura Didactică și pedagogică.

Vrășmaș, E., Oprea, V. (2003). Set de instrumente, probe și teste pentru evaluarea educațională a copiilor cu dizabilități, București: MarLink.

Specificul dezvoltării abilităților de comunicare pragmatică în contextul dizabilității intelectuale

Specificul dezvoltării abilităților de comunicare pragmatică în contextul dizabilității intelectuale

The specific of the development of pragmatic communication skills in the context of intellectual disability


This article presents a case study regarding Down syndrome and the difficulties that appear due to pragmatic communication disorder in the day to day life of persons with Down syndrome. Having difficulties in the area of pragmatic communication suggests the lack of functional communication, with impact on an individuals social life, human interractions, establishing and maintaining significant relationships, along with having difficulties in understanding speech, waiting for one`s turn, listening, starting, maintaining or ending a conversation.
Through specific speech therapy interventions, we can see in this case study how pragmatic communication can be trained by focusing on communication skills, articulation and pronuntiation exercises, with significant impact on the individuals self-esteem issues and the diminuation of dezadaptative behaviours characteristic to Down Syndrom

Keywords: pragmatic communication disorder, Down syndrome, intellectual disability, speech and language therapy, case study

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2018.4.2.05

Published on line: 31/10/2018

Anca, M. (2003). Metode și tehnici de evaluare a copiilor cu cerințe educaționale speciale, Cluj-Napoca: Editura Presa Universitară Clujeană.

Bodea-Hațegan, C. (2016). Logopedia- terapia tulburărilor de limbaj. Structuri deschise, București: Editura Trei.

Bodea-Hațegan, C., Talaș, D, Trifu-Soare R. (2016). Tulburarea de comunicare socială (pragmatică) – (TCSP). Studiu ilustrând percepția specialiștilor în terapia limbajului din România, Cluj-Napoca: RRTTLC, nr. 2/2016, pag 1-11. DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2016.2.2.02

Dewart, H. (1995). The pragmatics profile of everyday communication skills in children – Manual, retrieved from http://complexneeds.org.uk

Kuder, S. (1997). Teaching students with language and communication disabilities Needham Heights: Editura Allyn & Bacon

Leinonen, E. (2000). Children`s pragmatic communication difficulties, London: Whurr Publishers

Paul, R. (2001). Language disorders from infancy through adolescence. Assessment & intervention, St. Louis: Mosby

Particularități ale limbajului oral la elevii cu dizabilități intelectuale

Particularități ale limbajului oral la elevii cu dizabilități intelectuale

Particularities of oral language in students with intellectual disabilities

Maria POP

This article studies the particularities of spoken language in students with intellectual disabilities and the importance of a complex language assessment in order to structure a personalized intervention program for speech and language therapy. Hereby language is being evaluated in all its aspects: phonetic, phonological, morphological, semantic and syntactic.
Personalized intervention programs will be structured depending on the results obtained at the tests, the individual particularities of the children and the type and severity of intellectual disability. The personalized intervention program is the basis of speech and language therapy

Keywords: pragmatic communication disorder, Down syndrome, intellectual disability, speech and language therapy, case study

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2018.4.2.06

Published on line: 31/10/2018

Bodea Hațegan, C. (2016). Logopedia. Terapia tulburărilor de limbaj. Structuri deschise, București: Editura Trei.

Bodea Hațegan, C. (2014). Proba de evaluare a abilităților morfologice în limba română”, Cluj-Napoca: Editura Argonaut.

Bodea Hațegan, C., Talaș, D. (2015). Aplicația „Pași prin lumea sunetelor!”

Gherguț, A. ( 2013 ).Sinteze de psihopedagogie specială. Ghid pentru concursuri și examene de obținere a gradelor didactice, Iași: Editura Polirom

Hațegan, C. (2011). Abordări structuralist – integrate în terapia tulburărilor de limbaj și comunicare, Cluj-Napoca: Editura Presa Universitară Clujeană.

Hărdălău, L., Drugaș, I. (2010). Logopedie prin jocuri și exerciții”, Oradea: Editura Primus.

Roșan, A. (2016). Prefață, în Bodea Hațegan, C. (2016). Logopedia. Terapia tulburărilor de limbaj. Structuri deschise, București: Editura Trei, p. 11.

Szanto, E., Dobre, E. ( 2017 ). Cum să învăț să vorbesc. Emiterea, corectarea și exersarea sunetelor la copiii cu dizabilitate auditivă”, Cluj-Napoca: Editura Risoprint, Cluj – Napoca.

Resursă web: http://kidsopia.com/

Particularități terapeutice în tulburarea de ritm și fluență de tipul bâlbâielii asociată cu hipoacuzia de transmisie

Particularități terapeutice în tulburarea de ritm și fluență de tipul bâlbâielii asociată cu hipoacuzia de transmisie

Therapeutic approach in rhythm and fluency disorder associated with transmission hearing loss

Mirela BUTTA

Some studies made a connection between mild transmission hearing impairment and the ability to perceive speech rate both led to stuttering.
Language acquisition is closely linked to the hearing development. Children with hearing impairments go through the same steps in hearing development as typically developed children do but they need more time to go through each developmental stage.
During the intervention programme, hearing must not be dealt with in an isolated way. It is highly recommended that the functions of hearing to be connected with the functions the tactile-kinesthetic, visual, dynamic, olfactory, vestibular ones. The child will be able to develop the capacity of auditory decoding and also the communicative competences as the capacity of hearing is growing in combination with other sensory ways.

Keywords: mild transmission hearing impairment, developmental stuttering, speech therapy, fluency disorders,, The Programme of Runyan-fluency rules.

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2018.4.2.07

Published on line: 31/10/2018

Batliner, A. (2001). The Integration of Phonethic Knowledge in Speech Technology, Netherlands: Editura Springer.

Bennet RL. (1999). The practical Guide to the Genetic Family History, Wiley-Liss: p.83-88,191-193.

Bertram, B. (2004). Cochlear Implantation for Children with Hearing Loss and Multlipe Disabilities: An Evaluations from an educator’s Perspective, in Volta Review, vol.104, p.349-359.

Bloodstein, O., (1993), A handbook on stuttering, Chicago: National Easter Society

Bodea Haţegan C., (2016). Logopedia. Terapia tulburărilor de limbaj. Structuri deschise, Bucureşti: Editura Trei.

Cho LJE., (2004). Speech-Language and Educational Consequences of Unilateral Hearing Loss in Children, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: 130(5):524-30.

Devin McAuley, (2015). Evidece for a rhythm perception deficit in children who stutter, Brain Lang: 144, 26-34.
Durlach, N.I., Thompson, C.L., Colburn, H.S. (1981). Binaural interaction in impaired listeners—A review of past research. Audiology, 20, 181–211.

Haddad J Jr., (2007). Hearing loss.In Kliegman:Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th ed. Saunders: chap 636.

Maria A., Hațegan C., (2008). Terapia limbajului. O abordare interdisciplinară, Cluj-Napoca, Presa Universitară Clujeană.
Pop, C. (2006).
Hipoacuzia- drama unei dizabilităţi. -o lume fără zgomote, Medic.ro: 24:12-16.

Popescu, R., Ștefănescu, C.A. (2009). Sugestii pentru părinții în problematica învățare-evalare: abordări, studii, cercetări, (Popescu R. coordonator), Sibiu: Editura Psihomedia.

Yaruss, J. S., & Quesal, R. W. (2010). Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering, Bloomington: MN: Pearson Assessments.

Yairi E, Ambrose NG. (1999). Early childhood stuttering I: persistency and recovery rates. J Speech Lang Hear, Res: 42(5):1097–1112.

Particularități ale dezvoltării abilităților morfo–semantice în contextul protezării auditive cu implant cohlear și aparat auditiv

Particularități ale dezvoltării abilităților morfo – semantice în contextul protezării auditive cu implant cohlear și aparat auditiv

Particularities of the development of morph-semantic abilities in the context of cochlear implant and hearing aid

Roxana-Loredana PINTEA

In this paper we will study the level of development of morpho – semantic abilities of students with hearing disability, with cochlear implant and hearing aid. The samples chosen for the research consists of 6 students with hearing disability, 4th grade students from the Special High School for Hearing Impaired Cluj-Napoca, three students with cochlear implanted and three other students with hearing aids. To evaluate the morphological abilities I used Morphological Skills Assessment Test in Romanian Language (Haţegan C. B., 2014), and for the assessment of semantic abilities we used the Peabody Vocabulary Test (Dunn & Dunn, 1981). After the evaluations, the results were processed in order to identify the differences between the two groups of students, the cochlear implant pupils and the hearing aid students, the morphological and semantic abilities.

Keywords: hearing impairments, language development, vocabulary test, cochlear implants, morphological abilities

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2018.4.2.08

Published on line: 31/10/2018

Anca, M. (2001). Psihologia deficienților de auz. Cluj-Napoca: Presa Universitară Clujeană.

Bodea Hațegan, C. (2014). Proba de evaluare a abilităților morfologice în limba română aplicații psiholingvistice. Cluj – Napoca: Argonaut Ex – 1 CD-ROM.

Bodea Hațegan, C. (2015). Dizabilitățile auditive. In A. Roșan, Psihopedagogie Specială: modele de evaluare și intervenție (pp. 124 -148). Iași: Polirom.

Dunn, L. M. (1981). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – Revised.

Hațegan, C. (2011). Abordări structuralist – integrate în terapia tulburărilor de limbaj și comunicare. Cluj – Napoca: Presa Universitară Clujeană.

Tulburările specifice de învățare ale școlarlui mic

Tulburările specifice de învățare ale școlarlui mic

The specific learning disabilities in preschool students

Silviana CHIȘU

Starting from the operational psychological theories on the area of proximal development created by J. Piaget (1965) and L.S. Vîgotski (1971), I sought to change the stage of evaluation and diagnosis of specific learning disorders of elementary school students, from research activity into a research „hands-on” activity, through which evaluation and diagnosis become a complex, dynamic and a long lasting process. The finality of this process has materialized in the ease of developing and applying the compensatory and rehabilitative therapeutic approach that helps young students avoid school failure.
Due to the formative character of using the applied psychological tests, by determining the cognitive level and child’s academic skills, I have ruled out the idea of non-training students with certain predispositions for specific learning disorders.
From a psychological and pedagogical point of view, such evaluation has a particular efficiency in cognitive stimulation by orienting psychological intervention to improving students’ academic skills.
Through early evaluation and intervention, I have brought to parents’ awareness and to the school environment (teachers and students’ school peers) the students’ specific learning difficulties, things that would change wrong attitudes and bad representations towards students with specific learning disorders.

Keywords: SLI,learning difficulties, early intervention

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2018.4.2.09

Published on line: 31/10/2018

Bartok, E. (2017). Copilul dislexic – o responsabilitate comună. Ghid destinat cadrelor didactice și părinților copiilor cu TSI, Tipografia Osli SRL, Târgu Mureș

Bender, L (1938). A visual motor gestalt test and its clinical use, American Orthopsychiatric Association of Research Monographs, 38.
Burlea G., (2007). Tulburările limbajului scris-citit, Ed. Polirom, Iaşi

Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (1995) Classification statistique internationale des maladies et des problemes de santé connexes, 10, mise a jour, Genève.

Păunescu, C. (1984). Tulburările de limbaj la copil, Ed. Medicală, Bucureşti

Piaget, J. (1965). Psihologia inteligenței, Editura Științifică, București

Sindelar, B. (1982). Lernprobleme an der Wurzel packen. Trainingsprogramme gegen Lernstorungen. Unter Mitarb v. Rind W., Wien.

Sindelar, B. (1994). Teilleistungsschwachen, Wien, Eigenverlag.

SPSS Inc. (2013) SPSS for Windows (Version 20.0) Chicago, IL:SPSS.

Vîgotski, L.S. (1971). Opere psihologice alese, vol.I, Ed. Didactică și Pedagogică, București

Verza, E. (2003). Tratat de logopedie, Ed. Fundaţiei Humanitas, Bucureşti

Fluența verbală (semantică și fonemică)

Fluența verbală (semantică și fonemică)

Verbal fluency – semantic and phonemic


This article defines verbal fluency, with both its ways: semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency trying to answer to the fallowing question „Is Verbal fluency and indicator for linguistic or a cognitive development?”. In order to answer this question this article mentions lots of researches regarding all the area in which verbal fluency tests are used. Among these areas we can mention: linguistic area, neuropsychological area, psychiatric area. The practical aspect regrading verbal fluency is ensured through the proposed assessment and training tasks both for semantic and phonemic verbal fluency. The way Romanian psychological tests compress verbal fluency is another aspect approached in this article, in order to ensure for the reader, the possibility to have a global image about verbal fluency and its concert materializations.

Keywords: verbal fluency, semantic verbal fluency, phonemic verbal fluency, executive functioning, language development.

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2018.4.2.10

Published on line: 31/10/2018

Andreou, G., Trott K. (2013). Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 5, 343–351 10.1007/s12402-013-0112-z.

Bahrami, H., Nejati, V., Pooretemad, N. (2014). A Comparative Study of Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Stuttering, Zahedan Journal of Research and Medical Sciences, 2014 May; 16(5): 41-44.

Barry, D., Bates, M. E., & Labouvie, E. (2008). FAS and CFL Forms of Verbal Fluency Differ in Difficulty: A Meta-analytic Study. Applied Neuropsychology, 15(2), 97–106. http://doi.org/10.1080/09084280802083863

Benton, A. L. (1968). Differential behavioural effects in frontal lobe disease. Neuropsychologia 6, 53–60 10.1016/0028-3932(68)90038-9.
Benton, A. L., Hamsher, K., Rey, G. L., & Sivan, A. B. (1994). Multilingual Aphasia Examination (3rd ed.). Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates.

Bethlehem, D., de Picciotto, J., & Watt, N. (2003). Assessment of verbal fluency in bilingual Zulu-English speakers. South African Journal of Psychology, 33 (4), 236-240.

Birn, R. M., Kenworthy, L., Case, L., Caravella, R., Jones, T. B., Bandettini, P. A., & Martin, A. (2010). Neural systems supporting lexical search guided by letter and semantic category cues: A self-paced overt response fMRI study of verbal fluency. NeuroImage, 49(1), 1099–1107. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.07.036.

Federmeier K. D., McLennan D. B., De Ochoa E., Kutas M. (2002). The impact of Semantic memory organization and sentence context information on spoken language processing by younger and older adults: an ERP study. Psychophysiology, 39, 133–146 10.1111/1469-8986.3920133.

Fisk J. E., Sharp C. A. (2004). Age-related impairment in executive functioning: updating, inhibition, shifting, and access. Journal of Clinical Experimental Neuropsycholy 26, 874–890 10.1080/13803390490510680.

Hinckley, J. (2018). The Three-Minute Assessment: Clinical Profiles Associated with Verbal Fluency, retrived from in 8.10.2018. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&ved=2ahUKEwi4p8ed3vvdAhUC_iwKHQfxAY8QFjADegQIBhAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.asha.org%2FEvents%2Fconvention%2Fhandouts%2F2012%2F1527-The-3-Minute-Assessment-Clinical-Profiles-Associated-With-Verbal-Fluency%2F&usg=AOvVaw2eM1K6t8Fq4lZzManc9LUz.

Mirandez, R. M., Aprahamian, I., Talib, L.L., Forlenza, O.V., Radanovic, M. (2017). Multiple category verbal fluency in mild cognitive impairment and correlation with CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. International Psychogeriatrics. 2017 Jun; 29(6):949-958. doi: 10.1017/S1041610217000102. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Newcombe, F. (1969). Missle Wounds of the Brain. A Study of Psychological Deficits. London: Oxford University Press.

Portocarrera, J. S., Burright, R.G., & Donovick, P. J. (2007). Vocabulary and verbal fluency of bilingual and monolingual college students. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 415 – 422.

Radanovic, M., Diniz, B.S., Mirandez, R.M., Novaretti, T.M., Flacks, M.K., Yassuda, M.S., Forlenza, O.V. (2009). Verbal fluency in the detection of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease among Brazilian Portuguese speakers: the influence of education. International Psychogeriatrics. 2009 Dec; 21(6):1081-7. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

Shao, Z., Janse, E., Visser, K., & Meyer, A. S. (2014). What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 772. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00772.

Spreen O, Strauss E. (1998). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms and commentary. 2nd edition Oxford University Press; New York: 1998.

Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). Compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed., p. 502). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Trifu, R., Nemeș, B., Bodea-Hațegan, C., Cozman, D. (2017). Linguistic Indicators of Language in Major Depressive Disorder (Mdd). An Evidence Based Research, Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, vol 17., No. 1, March 2017,105-128.

Trifu, R., Mera,D., Hambrich, M., Cozman, D – Verbal fluency, clustering and switching in persons with depression as indicators for cognitive impairments. Romanian Journal 0f Psychiatry, 2015. Vol. 17. Issue 4, p. 112-119.

Zhao, Q., Guo, Q., Hong, Z. (2013). Clustering and switching during a semantic verbal fluency contribute to differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Neuroscience Bulletin, 29, 75–82 10.1007/s12264-013-1301-7.

Henry, J., Crawford, J. R .(2005). A meta-analytic review of verbal fluency deficits in depression. Journal of Clinical Experimental Neuropsychology. 2005 Jan;27(1):78-101.

Whiteside, D.M., Kealey, T., Semla, M., Luu, H., Rice, L., Basso, M., Roper, B. (2016). Verbal Fluency: Language or Executive Function Measure?, Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 23:1, 29-34, DOI: 10.1080/23279095.2015.1004574