Particularități ale limbajului și comunicării în TSA

Particularități ale limbajului și comunicării în TSA

Particularities of language and communication in ASD


Autism spectrum disorders (AST) are a complex and puzzling cluster of disorders in which social isolation, communication difficulties, and the presence of peculiar and/or repetitive behaviors, in various degrees, are the main characteristics. These characteristics are interlinked and share similar brain and cognitive functioning specificity. This paper focuses on communication and language disorders, their particularities in persons with AST, and their impact on differential diagnostic and specific interventions. Efficient therapeutic strategies and techniques for persons with ASD should address these strong correlations and overlaps between the specific social behavior development and the particularities of using language and communication in an ecological paradigm.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, language and communication disorders in ASD, alternative and augmentative communication strategies, visual clues, echolalia
DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2023.9.2.03
Published on line:10/30/2023
Al Ghazi, L. (2018). History of autism. The beginnings. Collusions or serendipity. Journal of Educational Sciences, 38(2), 5-17.
APA. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association Publication.
Baranek, G. (1999)). Autism during infancy: a retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9-12 months of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29(3), 213-224.
Bogdashina, O. (2005). Communication Issues In Autism and Asperger Syndrome: Are we speaking the same language? London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Choi, D., Batterink, L. J., Black, A. K., Paller, K. A., & & Werker, J. F. (2020). Preverbal Infants Discover Statistical Word Patterns at Similar Rates as Adults: Evidence From Neural Entrainment. Psychological Science, 31(9), 1161–1173. doi:
Cohen, D., & Volkmar, F. (1997). Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. New York: Wiley.
Fenson, L., Marchman, V., Thal, D., Dale, P., Reznick, J., & Bates, E. (2007). MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories: User’s Guide and Technical Manual. Baltimore: : Brookes.
Gernsbacher, M., Morson, E., & Grace, E. (2015). Language Development in Autism,. În G. Hickok, & S. Small, Neurobiology of language (pg. 879-886). Elsevier, Academic Press.
Goodwin, A. F. (2012). Comprehension of wh-questions precedes their production in typical development and autism spectrum disorders. Autism research: official journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 109-123.
Hasson, U., Egidi, G., Marelli, M., & Wilems, R. (2018). Grounding the neurobiology of language in first principles: The necessity of non-language-centric explanations for language comprehension. Cognition, 135-157.
Hudry, K., K, L., Temple, K., Slonims, V., & McConachie, H. e. (2010). (2010). Preschoolers with autism show greater impairment in receptive compared with expressive language abilities. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 45(6), 681-690.
Kwok, E., Brown, H., Smyth, R., & Cardy, J. (2015). Meta- analysis of receptive and expressive language skills in autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 9, 202-222.
Leung, A. T. (2021). Parents Fine-Tune Their Speech to Children’s Vocabulary Knowledge. Psychological Science, 32(7), 975–984. doi:
Lieberman, P. (2002). On the Nature and Evolution of the Neural Basis of Human Language, Vol. 45, pp. 36-62. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 45, 36-62.
Lima Antão JYF, O. A. (2018). Instruments for augmentative and alternative communication for children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Clinics (Sao Paulo). doi:10.6061/clinics/2017/e497
Liszkowski, U. (2011). ). Three Lines in the Emergence of Prelinguistic Communication and Social Cognition. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 10(1), 32-43.
Lord, C., & Corsello, C. (2005). Diagnostic instruments in autism spectrum disorders, in . În F. Volkmar, A. Klin, & R. Paul, Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Luștrea, A., Al Ghazi, L., & Borca, C. (2017). Innovative Academic Course on Integrative Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Educational Sciences, 36(2), 56-68.
MacDonald, J. (2004). Communicating Partners. 30 Years of of Building Responsive Relationships with Late-Talking Children including Autism, Asperger Syndrome (ASD), Down Syndrome, And Typical Development. London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Magyar, C. I. (2011). Developing and evaluating educational programs for students with autism: . New York, NY: Springer Publisher.
Maljaars, J., Noens, I., Scholte, E., & van Berckelaer–Onnes, I. (2012). Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(10), 2181-2191.
Mody, M., & Belliveau, J. (2013). Speech and Language Impairments in Autism: Insights from Behavior and Neuroimaging ,. North American Journal of Medicine & Science, 5(3), 157–161.
Moldin, M., & Rubenstein, J. (2006). Understanding Autism. From Basic Neuroscience to Treatment. Boca Raton.: Taylor&Francis.
Mundy, P., & Sigman, M. (1989). The theoretical implications of joint-attention deficits in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 1(3), 173-183.
Organization, W. H. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders : clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organization.
Poeppel, D., Emmorey, K., & Hickok, G. P. (2012). Towards a New Biology of Language. Journal of Neurosciences, 32(41), 14125-14131.
Predescu, M., Al Ghazi, L., & Darjan, I. (2018). An ecological approach of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Educational Sciences, 38(2), 31-43.
Rudy, L. (2023). Echolalia in Autism. Why Autistic Children Echo Words and Sounds, accesat Echolalia in Autism: Types and Why Kids Echo Sounds (
Surian, L., & Siegal, M. (2008). Language and communication disorders in Autism and Asperger Syndrome. În B. Stemmer, & H. and Whitaker, Handbook of neuroscience of language (pg. 377-385). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language. Cambridge:: Harvard University Press.
Weismer, S., Lord, K., & Esler, A. (2010). Early Language Patterns of Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum Compared to Toddlers with Developmental Delay. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(10), 1259-73. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-0983-1
WHO. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders : clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organization.

Limbaj și comunicare în contextul TSA: mituri și evidențe

Limbaj și comunicare în contextul TSA: mituri și evidențe

Language and communication: myths and evidences

Raluca Nicoleta TRIFU, Carolina BODEA HAŢEGAN, Bogdana MICLEA

Autism spectrum disorder is a very common developmental disorder nowadays. CPLOL celebrated speech and language therapy day on the 6th of March and dedicated this day to Communication in Autism. Based on this, we prepared a workshop within our association (ASTTLR) under this theme where ASD was approached based on the language myths and on the language evidences. The fallowing myths and evidences were discussed based on significant studies in the field: echolalia, language idiosyncrasy, personal pronoun usage, gestures, the gap between receptive and expressive language. Conclusions underlined that language development can be an important indicator in ASD, but it must be carefully approached as not all specific language development features can be by themselves diagnostic criteria.

Keywords:autism spectrum disorder, speech and language disorders, social-pragmatic communication disorder, echolalia, language idiosyncrasy, personal pronoun

DOI: 10.26744/rrttlc.2019.5.1.11

Published on line: 31/03/2019
Anca, M.; Hațegan, C. (2008). Terapia limbajului. O abordare interdisciplinară, Cluj-Napoca: Presa Universitară Clujeană.American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Ed. DSM-IV-TR. American Journal of Critical Care. 10.1176/appi.books.9780890420249.dsm-iv-trAPA. (1980). DSM-III: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association.APA. (2015). DSM-5, Manual de Diagnostic si Clasificare Statistica a Tulburarilor Mintale. (APA, Ed.) (5th ed.). București: Callisto. Retrieved from–i7369ASHA. (2019). Social Communication. Retrieved from

ASTTLR. (2019). Program – Workshop. Autism Comunicare. Retrieved from

Bodea-Hațegan, C. (2016). Logopedia. Terapia tulburărilor de Limbaj. Structuri deschise. București: Editura Trei.

Bodea-Hațegan, C. (2018). Verbal fluency – semantic and phonemic. Revista Română de Terapia Tulburărilor de Limbaj Şi Comunicare, IV(2), 79–86.

Bodea-Hațegan, C., Talaș, D., & Trifu, R. N. (2016). Social -Pragmatic Communication Disorder. A study investigating the perception of the Romanian speech and language therapists. Revista Română de Terapia Tulburărilor de Limbaj Şi Comunicare, 2(2), 3–13.

Cosman, D. (2010). Psihologie medicală. Iaşi: Polirom EX – 464 p.

Coward, H., Paez, S., & Jayes, M. (2019). A continental approach. RCSLT Bulletin, March, 20–21.

Dobrescu, I., Rad, F., & Nedelcu, M. C. (2016). Tulburări pervazive de Dezvoltare/Tulburări de spectru autist. In I. Dobrescu (Ed.), Manual de Psihitrie a copilului și adolescentului (I, pp. 264–347). București: Total Publishing.

Frith, U. (1989). Autism : explaining the enigma. Oxford  UK ;;Cambridge  MA  USA: Basil Blackwell. Retrieved from

Gernsbacher, M. A., Morson, E. M., & Grace, E. (2016). Language and Speech in Autism. Annu Rev Linguist, (Apa 1980), 413–425.

Hațegan, C. (2011). Abordări structuralist-integrate în terapia tulburărilor de limbaj și comunicare, Cluj-Napoca: Presa Universitară Clujeană.

Kendell, R. E. (2014). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed., revised (DSM-III-R). American Journal of Psychiatry.

Kim, S. H., & Lord, C. (2018). Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised. In Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology.

Lee, A., RP, H., & S., C. (1994). I, you, me, and autism: an experimental study. – PubMed – NCBI. J Autism Dev Disord., Apr;24(2), 155–76. Retrieved from

Mody, M., Manoach, D. S., Guenther, F. H., Kenet, T., Bruno, K. A., & McDougle, C. J. (2013). Speech and language in autism spectrum disorder: A view through the lens of behavior and brain imaging. Neuropsychiatry, 3(2), 223–232.

Organization, W. H. (2018). ICD-11. Retrieved February 28, 2019, from

Prud’hommeaux, E., & Roark, B. (2011). Classification of atypical language in autism. Acl Hlt …, (June), 88–96. Retrieved from

Radua, J., Via, E., Catani, M., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2011). Voxel-based meta-analysis of regional white-matter volume differences in autism spectrum disorder versus healthy controls. Psychological Medicine.

Rutter, M., LeCouteur, A., Lord, C., Macdonald, H., Rios, P., & Folstein, S. (1988). Diagnosis and Subclassification of Autism. In Diagnosis and Assessment in Autism.

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., Ruiz, P., & Kaplan, H. I. (2009). Kaplan & Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Sauer, E., Levine, S. C., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2010). Early gesture predicts language delay in children with pre- or perinatal brain lesions. Child Development, 81(2), 528–39.

Trifu, R., Mera, D., Hambrich, M., & Cozman, D. (2015). Verbal Fluency, Clustering and Switching In Persons with Depression as Indicators for Cognitive Impairments. Revista Română de Psihiatrie, XVII(4), 112–119.

Trifu, R. N., Nemeș, B., Cozman, D., & Bodea-Hațegan, C. (2017). Linguistic indicators of language in major depressive disorder (MDD). an evidence based research. Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, 17(1), 105–128. DOI: 10.24193/jebp.2017.1.7

Volden, J., & Lord, C. (1991). Neologisms and idiosyncratic language in autistic speakers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 21(2), 109–130.

Warren, J. E., Wise, R. J. S., & Warren, J. D. (2005). Sounds do-able: auditory–motor transformations and the posterior temporal plane. Trends in Neurosciences, 28(12), 636–643.

Wimpory, D., Hansen, R., Scahill, L. D., Azad, A., Gulsrud, A. C., Violette, M., … Rapin, I. (2012). DSM-III-R. In Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Wolff, S., & Chess, S. (1964). A BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF SCHIZOPHRENIC CHILDREN. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 40(4), 438–66. Retrieved from

World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Nonserial Publication WHO.