Logopedia-considerații praxiologice: interogații, bune practice și intervenție bazată pe dovezi științifice
SLT- practical aspects: inquiries, good practices and evidence based interventions
Ovidiu Cristian TUDOREAN
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although speech therapy in Romania has a tradition of over 70 years, the practice in the field is in a full process of affirmation and clarification. The initial training system and some professional organizations contribute to the updating and dissemination of standards and good practices in the field.
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe some aspects of Romanian speech therapy practice and to draw attention to some discrepancies in the reporting of language and communication disorders. Some suggestions on concrete ways of intervention and evidence-based speech therapy are also offered.
METHODS: (1) The statistical data reported by the Iași Inter-School Speech Therapy Center between 2011 and 2020 were analyzed. The data are compared with those available internationally. (2) Two children groups were considered: one diagnosed with developmental language disorder (DLD) (n = 67) and another diagnosed with language delay (LD) (n = 57), aged between 3 and 12 years (M = 5 years 8 months). Tests were used to establish the psychological language age, active and passive vocabulary, record the phonetic inventory and language samples analysis (LSA) for qualitative observations.
RESULTS: (1) Statistical data reveal a concordance of reports for speech sound disorders. There are major discrepancies for the other language and communication disorders. Causal explanations and potential directions for remedying this situation are proposed.
(2) A statistical analysis (Student’s t test) was conducted in order to compare the children in LD and DLD groups. The data obtained from this analysis along with LSA indicate that the language skills differ between the two groups on the following aspects: lexical, pragmatic, semantic, syntactic, morphological and phonological. Significant differences (p<0.05) occur for onset speech therapy age, phonological disorder, passive vocabulary and language psychological age. Results for active vocabulary did not indicate statistical difference between LD and DLD children. CONCLUSIONS: Explorations reveal a situation with potential negative consequences on children with language and communication disorders. It is desirable to ensure a consensus among practitioners, from the identification phase to the construction of the remediation plan. The use of guidelines for language development and communication skills can contribute to a unitary and effective practice. The study is a prospective one, this issue being subject for further exhaustive approaches.
Keywords: Romanian speech therapy, language disorders prevalence, language tests, evidence-based practice, guides for developing language and communication skills.
Published on line: 31/10/2021
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®): American Psychiatric Pub.
Bishop, D. V. M., Snowling, M. J., Thompson, P. A., & Greenhalgh, T. (2017). Phase 2 of CATALISE: a multinational and multidisciplinary Delphi consensus study of problems with language development: Terminology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 58(10), 1068-1080. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12721
Bishop, D. V. M., Snowling, M. J., Thompson, P. A., Greenhalgh, T., & consortium, C. (2016). CATALISE: A Multinational and Multidisciplinary Delphi Consensus Study. Identifying Language Impairments in Children. PLOS ONE, 11(7), e0158753. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158753
Black LI, Vahratian A, Hoffman HJ. (2015). Communication disorders and use of intervention services among children aged 3–17 years: United States, 2012. NCHS data brief, no 205. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Bloom, L., & Lahey, M. (1978). Language development and language disorders. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Bodea Hațegan, C. (2016). Validation study of a morphological assessment tool for the romanian speaking population. Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, 16(2).
Broomfield, J., & Dodd, B. (2004). The nature of referred subtypes of primary speech disability. Journal Child Language Teaching Therapy, 20(2), 135-151.
Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages: Harvard U. Press.
Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. The Hague/Paris: Mouton.
Craig, A., Hancock, K., Tran, Y., Craig, M., & Peters, K. (2002). Epidemiology of stuttering in the community across the entire life span. Journal of Speech, Language, Hearing Research.
Deltour, J., & Hupkens, D. (1980). Test de vocabulaire actif et passif, TVAP. Braine le Château: Editions Applications des Techniques Modernes.
Descoeudres, A. (1924). La mesure du langage de l’enfant. J. de Psychol, 21, 44-47.
Duchan, Judith, Felson (2011). A History of Speech – Language Pathology (ebook). Published May 12th 2011 by online ebook. Author(s): Judith Felson Duchan. Edition language: English
Ebbels, S. H., McCartney, E., Slonims, V., Dockrell, J. E., & Norbury, C. F. (2019). Evidence‐based pathways to intervention for children with language disorders. Int J Lang Commun Disord, 54(1), 3-19. doi:10.1111/1460-6984.12387
Fiestas, C. E., Bedore, L. M., Peña, E. D., Nagy, V. J., Cohen, J., & McAlister, K. (2005). Use of mazes in the narrative language samples of bilingual and monolingual 4-to 7-year old children. Paper presented at the ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism.
Fröschels, E. (1925). Psychologie der Sprache. Leipzig und Wien: Franz Deuticke.
Green, L. W. (2008). Making research relevant: if it is an evidence-based practice, where’s the practice-based evidence? Family practice, 25(suppl_1), i20-i24.
Hess, C. W., Sefton, K. M., & Landry, R. G. (1986). Sample size and type-token ratios for oral language of preschool children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 29(1), 129-134.
Ketelaars, M. P., Cuperus, J. M., van Daal, J., Jansonius, K., & Verhoeven, L. (2009). Screening for pragmatic language impairment: the potential of the children’s communication checklist. Res Dev Disabil, 30(5), 952-960. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2009.01.006
Law, J., Boyle, J., Harris, F., Harkness, A., & Nye, C. (2000). The feasibility of universal screening for primary speech and language delay: findings from a systematic review of the literature. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 42(3), 190–200. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0012162200000335
Leonard, L. B. (2020). A 200-Year History of the Study of Childhood Language Disorders of Unknown Origin: Changes in Terminology. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 5(1), 6-11. doi:10.1044/2019_PERS-SIG1-2019-0007
Macrae, T. (2017). Stimulus Characteristics of Single-Word Tests of Children’s Speech Sound Production. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 48(4), 219-233. doi:doi:10.1044/2017_LSHSS-16-0050
Miller, J. F., & Chapman, R. S. (1981). The relation between age and mean length of utterance in morphemes. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 24(2), 154-161. doi:10.1044/jshr.2402.154
Myklebust, H. R. (1956). Language Disorders in Children. Exceptional Children, 22(4), 163–166. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440295602200406
Orton, S. T. (1937). Reading, writing and speech problems in children. New York, NY, US: W W Norton & Co.
Owens, R., & Pavelko, S. L. (2020, 29.03.2020). SUGAR Sampling Utterances and Grammatical Analysis Revised. Retrieved from https://www.sugarlanguage.org/
Rice, M. L., Smolik, F., Perpich, D., Thompson, T., Rytting, N., & Blossom, M. (2010). Mean Length of Utterance Levels in 6-Month Intervals for Children 3 to 9 Years With and Without Language Impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(2), 333-349. doi:doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0183)
Richards, B. (1987). Type/Token Ratios: what do they really tell us? Journal of child language, 14, 201-209. doi:10.1017/S0305000900012885
Templin, M. C. (1957). Certain language skills in children; their development and interrelationships. Minneapolis, MN, US: University of Minnesota Press.
Tomblin, J. B., Records, N. L., Buckwalter, P., Zhang, X., Smith, E., & O’Brien, M. (1997). Prevalence of Specific Language Impairment in Kindergarten Children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40(6), 1245-1260. doi:doi:10.1044/jslhr.4006.1245
Vrăsmaş, E., Muşu, I., & Stănică, C. (1997). Terapia tulburarilor de limbaj: intervenții logopedice. București: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.
Werner, H. (1940). Comparative psychology of mental development. NY: International Universities Press, Inc.
World Economic Forum (2020). Future of Jobs Report. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-future-of-jobs-report-2020 World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders : diagnostic criteria for research. In. Geneva: World Health Organization.